|Aquatic Toxicity||Benthic Macroinvertebrates||Fish Community Studies|
|Biomonitoring for the BMAP was conducted in Bear Creek from 1984 to 1998. Biomonitoring began in 1984 in order to characterize impacts to Bear Creek from waste disposal (S-3) ponds at Y-12, which were leaching into Bear Creek near its headwaters. Studies conducted in the 1980s, which were funded by the Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Program, were used to assist in the development of an effective remedial action plan and to evaluate the effectiveness of these actions. Similar sampling continued in the early 1990s as part of the Y-12 Compliance program. In the mid to late 1990's, the Environmental Restoration (ER) program funded BMAP, initially to continue to provide information needed to characterize ecological risks in Bear Creek, and then lastly as part of a reservation-wide assessment as part of ER's Integrated Water Quality Program.|
Regardless of the funding group, BMAP provided a consistent
indicator of in-stream conditions throughout a 14-yr period of monitoring as a variety of remedial actions and other waste disposal activities have occurred in the watershed.
The Bear Creek watershed is located near the northern boundary of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation and has a drainage area of 18.5 km2. The S-3 ponds were remediated in the mid 1980's, but contaminated groundwater (primarily elevated metal concentrations) continued to flow to the upper section of Bear Creek. Waste burial grounds located to the north of Bear Creek near the middle of the stream's length have also contributed PCBs and other organics to the creek.
Note: BMAP site designations refer to the kilometer distance upstream of the stream's mouth (e.g., BCK 3.3 is located near the mouth of Bear Creek, BCK 12.4 is located near the stream's headwaters).
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