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Goodman (1996) notes that military installations have become "islands of endangered species." For some species (e.g., red-cockaded woodpecker), living on only one island is not a viable population solution. These species need to be managed across multiple installations. In order to manage resources across multiple installations, managers at each site must have similar management goals. These goals must be based on knowledge of the interactions among individual site populations (e.g., dispersal) and the impacts of local management actions on those interactions.

Metapopulations (Levins 1969, 1970)are one possible way that species may interact across separate installations or patches. We are exploring metapopulation models to provide information on the long-term viability of the red-cockaded woodpecker. This question is particularly relevant to DoD because 4 of the 20 largest red-cockaded woodpecker populations are on military bases in the southeastern U.S.


Goodman, S. W. 1996. Ecosystem management at the Department of Defense. Ecological Applications 6(3):706-707.

Levins, R. 1969. Some demographic and genetic consequences of environmental heterogeneity for biological control. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 15:237-240.

Levins, R. 1970. Extinction. pp. 77-107. In M. Gesternhaber (ed.), Some Mathematical Problems in Biology. American Mathematical Society, Providence, Rhode Island.

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