Types and Characteristics of Bioindicators:

A variety of stress responses have been measured in biological systems exposed to various types of stresses. Bioindicators can range from biomolecular/biochemical responses to population and community-level responses. For biomarkers to be considered as bioindicators however, they must be causally linked to ecologically-relevant endpoints.

Biomarkers are generally used to indicate exposure of organisms to contaminants at lower levels of biological organization while bioindicators are typically used to reflect effects of stressors on biological systems at higher levels of organization.

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