This is a brief description of studies that exemplify the methods and approaches that have been developed and used by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers in conducting integrated assessments. See the complete list of Integrated Assessment Briefs to find out more about ORNL's efforts in integrated assessment. Contact Mike Farrell ( for more information.

Assessment of Energy Technology Research and Development

Fundamental changes are shaping energy technology's research-and-development needs.

Can significant technological advances be made in time to address global warming and related problems? What important national and international needs can be met by effective energy research and development (R&D)?

Significant reductions in CO2 emissions will require modifications of current patterns in energy supply and use, improved energy efficiency, and substantial adoption of nonfossil energy sources: nuclear power, renewable energy sources (such as solar), and fusion energy.

Industrialized nations need to help developing nations find cleaner and more efficient technologies to meet their growing needs.

The current U.S. R&D agenda for energy technologies is insufficient to enable the changes necessary to address global warming issues; public and private investment of ~$1 billion per year is needed.

Fulkerson, W., D. B. Reister, A. M. Perry, A. T. Crane, D. E. Kash, and S. I. Auerbach. 1989. Global warming: An energy technology R&D challenge. Science 246:868-69.

Where To?

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Integrated Assessment Briefs. 1995. ORNL/M-4227. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.