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Edited by Jonathan Adams (Secretary of the Terrestrial Carbon Commission), Environmental and Geographical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005, Australia.
The INQUA Terrestrial Carbon Commission exists to foster inter-disciplinary work and meetings between scientists from around the world, with the aim of understanding changes in carbon dioxide levels, methane levels and carbon isotope changes during the last several million years
The Terrestrial Carbon Commission, which exists under the umbrella of the large International Quaternary Association INQUA, is itself made up of several working groups, each consisting of several specialists with interests in a particular key aspect of the ancient carbon cycle.You can contact Jonathan Adams at; email@example.com.
Home page at Adelaide
CALL for Papers:
INQUA CONGRESS (Durban S.A. 3-12 aug.1999)Sessions : "Carbon Cycle Changes : peak glacial versus interglacial conditions"
Papers related to the changes in the environment that may have modified the total biomass (or carbon storage) during the last 150,000 years cycle are requested.
Special attention will be paid to new results that demonstrate shifts in ecosystem distribution, or ecosystem modification, from the Last Glacial Maximum to early or mid Holocene conditions. Quantification and a global perspective would be appreciated, but any paper related to local, regional or global carbon cycle at various time scales may be acceptable. (More information can be obtained from the INQUA Commission on Terrestrial Carbon on http://inqua.nlh.no/comm/carbon.html)
AN OCEANOGRAPHER (AND THE FIRST TERRESTRIAL CARBON EXPERT) AS POSSIBLE NEXT PRESIDENT OF INQUA for 1999-2003 ? Every four years, the General Assembly of INQUA during its World Congress (in August 1999 at Durban, S.A.) elects a new President from among its active Vice-Presidents. Nominations are carried oput by by National Committees of INQUA. Several countries have nominated Nick SHACKLETON for the next presidency. Sir Nicholas is not only a well known Quaternarist, he is also the first to have attempted to calculate, in his 1977 paper on ocean carbon isotope fluctuations, the total biomass lost from the terrestrial forest during the last Glacial Maximum (thus starting all this off!).
Last year's (1998) newsletter..
A busy year...
Several sessions partly or jointly organized by the INQUA Paleocarbon Commission have taken place over the past year, giving researchers who are working on the Quaternary carbon cycle the opportunity to present their findings and to discuss new project ideas.
Several of the working groups dealing with aspects of carbon storage and fluxes from the land surface, met at the University of Nouakchott in Mauritania, in December '96/ January '97. Much of the work and discussion at this meeting focussed on the world's desert regions as past and future sinks and stores of carbon.
The meeting brought in 75 participants from about 20 countries, and a volume of 66 abstracts by more than 100 authors has been edited (Faure H. and L.), along with two guide-books from the conference field-trips. The Proceedings of the Conference are to be published (Editors: Faure and Singhvi) in Palaeoecology of Africa.
Another meeting on the "Global Carbon Cycle" held in Strasbourg was organised by the Paleocarbon Commission during the European Union of Geosciences (EUG9) meeting in March 1997. The focus included pre-Quaternary as well as Quaternary time scales, and mostly concerning European and Eurasian ecosystems. About 200 of the conference's total 2000 participants attended this session. A special volume of Chemical Geology is to be published, with papers based on presentations at the meeting.
A third Paleocarbon Commission meeting was held in Cairns (Australia) during the 5th International CO2 Conference, in presence of many of the world's most experienced experts of the present-day carbon cycle. The special session on Paleocarbon ended with a poster session, with the first prize (among all the posters shown at the CO2 Conference) given to a poster attributed to the working group on weathering processes.
Other important regional meetings of experts were held in South America, Russia, Australia, Israel, France, etc. The organising of the final meeting in Durban (1999) has begun and will include a symposium and a workshop, with a poster session.
The Working Groups
Here are the current working groups of the Paleocarbon Commission. They are each intended to provide a focus, helping researchers working on closely related topics to keep in touch with one another, and directing their goals towards particular key problems concerning the past carbon cycle. If you are interested in becoming involved with any of these groups, please contact the group leader named:
1 - W.G. Weathering as carbon sink.
The role of continental erosion (chemical and mechanical) on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during glacial/interglacial climate changes. Estimation of continental runoff during the last glacial maximum and quantification of river carbon inputs (organic and inorganic) to the oceans.
Leader: Jean-Luc PROBST, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 - W.G. Karst processes and carbon cycle (joint with IGCP 379)
The assessment on the contribution of karst processes to atmospheric CO2 as both sink (dissolution of carbonate rocks) or source (deposition of carbonate rocks), and its change over the late Pleistocene to Holocene.
Leader: Yuan DAOXIAN, e-mail: email@example.com
3 - W.G. Carbon release from the Lithosphere (coll. INQUA Neotectonic Comm.)
The degassing (CO2, CH4) from the lithosphere to the atmosphere can be modified by fractures and stress changes. This W.G. is attempting to estimate a possible contribution of these gases from neotectonic processes, through Late Pleistocene and Holocene time.
Leader: Nils-Axel MÖRNER, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
4 - W.G Volcanic (and mantle) carbon flux ( joint with IACVEI )
What are the changes in the internal carbon flux at the glacial/interglacial time scale? What is the origin of the volcanic carbon flux?
Leader: Patrick ALLARD, e-mail: email@example.com
5 - W.G. Modelling the carbon cycle in the past.
The objective of this working-group is to recontruct the Quaternary budget of carbon, mainly on the continents, by using models of climate (general circulation models), vegetation dynamics and carbon cycle. Of particular importance is the estimation of the biospheric carbon stocks at key periods (e.g. pre-industrial, 6, 21/18 and 125 kyr BP) during the last climatic cycle.
Leader: Louis FRANCOIS, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
6 - W.G. Carbon in lakes
Lakes with high accumulation rates act as sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Carbon may be sequestered as biogenic and inorganic carbonates or as organic carbon (from lake organisms and surrounding vegetation). During phases of dry climate, carbon can be stored as sodium and other carbonates in saline deposits, and in brines and brackish groundwaters.
Leaders: Michael R. TALBOT, e-mail: email@example.com; Kerry KELTS, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
7 - W.G. Carbon in underground water
This group aims to evaluate the underground water as an atmospheric/biospheric carbon reservoir, its time constant and state of flux.
Leader: Ibrahim Houssein (Dr Ibrahim HOUSSEIN)email@example.com (ISERST Djibouti)
8- W.G. Peat Carbon
A major sink for organic carbon is in the growing peat from wetland and peatland. Estimation of the total carbon stored in peat possibly show a glacial to present global storage above 500 GtC in peat only. A full carbon budget will account for CH4 and other components of wetlands.
Leader: Lars Franzen, e-mail: Lars@gig.gu.se
9- W.G. Shelf Carbon ( joint WG with IGCP 396)
Coastal areas are often highly productive in organic matter. When shelves are submerged by deglacial sea level rise, vegetation and soil are destroyed (or fossilised) and marine carbonates may accumulate. To evaluate the changes in area and environments of the shelf and its carbon budget is the W.G. aim.
Leader: Wahyoe S. Hantoro, e-mail: "wahyoe hantoro"
10- W.G. Reef Carbon (possibly joint with SCOR WG 104)
Objective: to evaluate the amount of carbon stored in the coral reefs system from LGM to mid-Holocene and to Present and to estimate net carbon fluxes.
Leader : Robert W. BUDDEMEIER "chair-elect", e-mail: Buddemeier firstname.lastname@example.org
11- W.G. G.E.M. ="Global Emiliania Modelling Initiative" (joint WG to be confirmed)
Leaders : Peter Westbroek, Luc Beaufort (to be confirmed)
(waiting for confirmation of GEM for a joint action). The interest is in the possible link of ocean productivity with continental dust : " balast theory " or " iron fertilisation "., wind forcing, etc.
II- REGIONAL AND NATIONAL WORKING-GROUPS
Regional Working-Groups, as well as National Working-Groups, have the purposes of putting together dated results related to the environmental changes of their own region for key dates of the last Quaternary climatic cycle and from these palaeogeographic reconstructions to evaluate the possible changes in biomass and soil carbon storage from glacial to interglacial maxima of their region.
12 - W.G. Africa
Studies in Africa, from tropical forests to deserts of both hemisperes, should help to understand interrelations between climate, water, environment and food issued from carbon sequestred in vegetation and soil.
Leaders: Dominique SCHWARTZ e-mail: email@example.com Brahim Damnati, (North), e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Timothy Partridge, (South), e-mail: 141TCP@cosmos.wits.ac.za.
13 - W.G. Eurasia: Western and Central Eurasia
Leaders: Andrei A.VELICHKO, Constantin KREMENETSKI, e-mail: email@example.com Anne-Kathrin GLIEMEROTH, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
14- W.G. South America
Past variations of carbon reservoirs in South America. Including studies on soil Carbon (13C /14C). Leader : Bruno TURCQ, e-mail : email@example.com- W.G. Central America Leader: Fernando ORTEGA, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (Relaciones Internacionales CITMA.), Fax: +537. 33.62.88 or 33.46.16
16 - W.G. North America
Leader: (waiting for a nomination)
17 - W.G. East Asia
Leader: Han JIAMAO (China delegate), email@example.com
18 - W.G. Autralasia
THis group aims to produce a series of 'palaeocarbon' maps for the Australasian region for selected time-slices, including the present, the Holocene Optimum, the last glacial maximum and the last interglacial
Leader: Michael BIRD (Australia IGCP404 delegate), e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
19 - W.G. QEN Mapping of ecosystems and carbon storage during the last 100,000 yrs
The QEN Web site (http://www.esd.ornl.gov/ern/qen) is intended to provide an atlas of global ecosystem distribution at various stages during the last 125 000 years. It is intended to provide the background material for estimating biogeochemical fluxes during the late Quaternary.
Leader : Jonathan M. ADAMS (UK, USA), e-mail: email@example.com
...and so much achieved!
The Terrestrial Carbon Commission people are a hard-working lot. Here is a summary list of recent publications by members of the Terrestrial Carbon working groups, since the Commission was set up. Many of these were presented at, or facilitated by, meetings of the Terrestrial Carbon Commission.
1 - W.G. Weathering as carbon sink
AMIOTTE-SUCHET P. and PROBST J.L. (1995) - A global model for present day atmospheric CO2 consumption by chemical erosion of continental rocks (GEM CO2). Tellus, 47B, n° 1/2, p 273-280
AMIOTTE-SUCHET P. and PROBST J.L. (1995) - A global 1 degree by 1 degree distribution of atmospheric/soil CO2 comsumption by continental weathering and of riverine HCO3 yield. Data Base 1012, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, April 1995, p 1-7
LUDWIG L., AMIOTTE-SUCHET P. and PROBST J.L. (1995) - Modelling the consumption of atmospheric CO2 by continental erosion. Proceedings XIV International Union for Quaternary Research Congress, 3-10 août 1995, Berlin, Germany, Terra Nostra, 2/95, Abstract, p 170
LUDWIG L., AMIOTTE-SUCHET P., MUNHOVEN G., PROBST J.L. and KEMPE S. (1995) - Modelling the consumption of atmospheric CO2 by continental erosion. Proceedings First IGBP.GAIM Science Conference, 25-29 septembre 1995, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, Abstract
AMIOTTE SUCHET P., PROBST A. and PROBST J.L. (1995) - Influence of acid rain on CO2 consumption by rock weathering : local and global scales. Water, air and soil pollution, vol 85, p 1563-1568.
LUDWIG W., PROBST J.L. and KEMPE S. (1996) - Predicting the oceanic input of organic carbon by continental erosion. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol 10, n° 1, p 23-41.
FAURE H., VELICHKO A.A. et PROBST J.L. (1996)- De VOSTOK au PICG n° 404. PICG Participation française, Bilan, Perspectives ... Séance spécialisée S.G.F./C.F.S., Paris, 4-5 novembre 1996, Strata, série 1, vol 8, p 94
PROBST J.L., LUDWIG W. et AMIOTTE SUCHET P. (1996) - Erosion des continents et transports fluviaux de carbone vers les océans. Influence sur la teneur en CO2 de l'atmosphère au cours du dernier maximum glaciaire. PICG Participation française, Bilan, Perspectives ... Séance spécialisée S.G.F./C.F.S., Paris, 4-5 novembre 1996, Strata, série 1, vol 8, p 95-97
LUDWIG W., AMIOTTE SUCHET P. and PROBST J.L. (1996) - River discharges of carbon to the world's oceans : determining local inputs (4° x 5° grid resolution) of alkalinity and dissolved and particulate organic carbon. C.R. Acad. Sci., Paris, t 323, série IIa, p 1007-1014.
AMIOTTE-SUCHET P., AUBERT D., GAUTHIER LAFFAYE F. PROBST A., VIVILLE D., ANDREUX F. et PROBST J.L. (1997) - Seasonal variations of stable isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in surface water of a small granitic catchment: the Strengbach case study (Vosges). Terra Abstract, abstract supplement, EUG 9, Strasbourg, 23-27 March 1997, p. 249.
BOEGLIN J. et PROBST J.L. (1997) - Physical and chemical weathering rates in the upper Niger basin. Terra Abstract, abstract supplement, EUG 9, Strasbourg, 23-27 March 1997, p. 582.
LUDWIG W., AMIOTTE-SUCHET P. and PROBST J.L. (1997)- Continental erosion: a sink of atmospheric CO2 during the last glacial maximum? Terra Abstract, abstract supplement, EUG 9, Strasbourg, 23-27 March 1997, p. 248.
LUDWIG W., AMIOTTE-SUCHET P. and PROBST J.L. (1997) - Continental erosion: a sink of atmospheric CO2 during the last glacial maximum? Proceedings 5th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, 8-12 September 1997, Cairns, Australia, Extended abstract, p. 207-208.
LUDWIG W., AMIOTTE SUCHET P., MUNHOVEN G. and PROBST J.L. (1997) - Atmospheric CO2 consumption by continental erosion : present-day controls ans implications for the last glacial maximum. Global and Planetary Change, in press.
AMIOTTE SUCHET P. and PROBST J.L. (1996) - Origines du carbone inorganique dissous dans les eaux de la Garonne. Variations saisonnières et interannuelles. Sciences Géologiques, Strasbourg, 49, in press.
LUDWIG W. and PROBST J.L. (1997) - Predicting the oceanic inputs of water, sediments and carbon by continental erosion. Proceedings LOICZ Open Science Meeting "Global Change Science in the Coastal Zone", 10-13 October 1997, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, in press.
PROBST J.L., LUDWIG W. and AMIOTTE-SUCHET P. (1997) - Global modeling of CO2 uptake by continental erosion and of carbon river transport to the oceans. Sciences Géologiques Bulletin, 49, 1-4, in press.
DEDIEU G. et PROBST J.L. (Eds.) (1997) - The global carbon cycle in the terrestrial biosphere. Sciences Géologiques Bulletin, 49, 1-4, in press.
MORTATTI J. and PROBST J.L. - Amazon contributions to global erosion and riverine fluxes. In: The biogeochemistry of the Amazon basin and its role in a changing world, McCLAIN M.E., MARTINELLI L.A. and RICHEY J.E. Eds., Chapter 21, in press.
PROBST J.L. (Ed.) (1996) - Fleuves et érosion. Sciences Géologiques, in press.
MUNHOVEN G. and PROBST J.L. (1995) - Influence of continental erosion processes on the glacial-interglacial evolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Final report, EC contract n° ERBCHBICT941053, Strasbourg, 16 p.
2 - W.G. Karst (Joint with IGCP 379)
DAOXIAN Y.(1997) - Sensitivity of karst process to environmental change along the PEP II Transit, Quaternary International,Vol.37: pp 105-113.
DAOXIAN Y.(1997) - The carbon cycle in karst, Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, Suppl-Bd.108, pp 91-102, July.
LUNDBERG J.(1997) - Paleoclimatic reconstruction and timing of sea level rise at the end of the Penultimate Glaciation,from detailed stable isotopic study and TIMS dating of submerged Bahamian speleothem, Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Speleology, Vol.1: p.101-102.
ZAIHUA L. and DREYBRODT W (1997) - Dissolution kinetics of calcium carbonate minerals in H2O-CO2 solution in turbulent flow : the role of the diffusion boundary layer and the slow reaction H2O+CO2<-->H+ +HCO3-, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ol.61,No.14, pp2879-2889.
TROFIMOVA E (1997) - Karst denudation in Irkutsk region, Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Speleology, Vol.1: pp 391-394.
3 - W.G. Carbon release from the Lithosphere (New working group)
4 - W.G. Volcanic
ALLARD P., JEAN-BAPTISTE P., D'ALLESSANDRO W., PARELLO F., PARISI B. & FLEHOC C. - 1997 - Mantle-derived helium and carbon in groundwaters and gases of Mount Etna, Italy. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 148: pp 501-516.
MARTINI M. - 1997 - The Investigation of magmatic, hydrothermal and atmospheric contributions to the chemical composition of volcanic gases, as a guideline to volcano surveillance. Volcanic activity and the environment. General Assembly: January 19-24 1997. IAVCEL, PUERTO VALLARTA, Mexico. Abstract p. 55.
MARTINI M. - 1997 - The interpretation of changes in progress at hazardous volcanoes, as a step ahead in the mitigation of volcanic disasters.Volcanic activity and the environment. General Assembly: January 19-24 1997. IAVCEL, PUERTO VALLARTA, Mexico. Abstract p.87.
MARTINI M. - 1996 - Chemical characters of the gaseous phase in different stages of volcanism: precursors and volcanic activity. Monitoring and Mitigation of Volcano Hazards Scarpa/Tilling (eds).pp. 200-219.
5 - W.G. Modelling
MUNHOVEN G. and FRANCOIS L.(1996) - Glacial-interglacial variability of atmospheric CO$_2$ due to changing continental silicate rock weathering: a model study, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 21423--21437.
FRANCOIS L., DELIRE C., WARNANT P. and MUNHOVEN G.- Modelling the glacial-interglacial changes in the continental biosphere, Global Planet. Change, in press.
FRANCOIS L., GERARD J.-C., NEMRY B., WARNANT P., DELIRE C., and MUNHOVEN G.- A global mechanistic model of the biosphere: validation and appplications to present and past climatic conditions. Sciences Geologiques, in press.
6 - W.G. Carbon in Lakes (New working group)
7 - W.G. Carbon in Underground Water
HOUSSEIN I. (1996) - Eaux souterraines en République de Djibouti: Brève synthèse des données géochimiques, hydrologiques et hydrogéologiques.
HOUSSEIN I., JALLUDIN M. (1996) - The Salinity of Djibouti’ Aquifer (Republic of Djibouti) Journal of African Earth Sciences. Volume 22, Issue 4.
FAURE H., VELICHKO A.A., FAURE-DENARD L. ADAMS J.M. - (1997) - Underground Waters as a Terrestrial Carbon Sink since the Last Glacial Maximum. EUG-9, Symp.18., Abstract Supplement N°1, Terra Nova , vol. 9, p. 248.
HOUSSEIN I. et JALUDIN M. (1997) - Eaux Souterraines de la République de Djibouti. Brève Synthèse des Données Géochimiques, Hydrologie, Hydrogéologie. In Colloque de Nouakchott, Desert Margin Changes in Africa since 135,000 BP: Implications for Water, Carbon and Man.
JALLUDIN M., MULLER W., RAZACK M., HOUSSEIN I. and GAFANEH A. (1997) -. Hydrogeological features of the Afar stratoïde basalts aquifer on the Djiboutian part. in: International Symposium. Flood Basalts, Rifting and Paleoclimates in the Ethiopian Rift and Afar. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, February 3 - 14.
HOUSSEIN I et X. HOUDART (1997) - Le fluor dans les eaux de consommation en zone urbaine de la République de Djibouti. Troisièmes Journées Médicales de la Corne d'Afrique, Djibouti 28-29.
8 - W.G. Peat Carbon
FRANZEN L. G. (1994) - Are wetlands the key to ice-age cycle enigma ? Published by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Ambio Vol. 23 No 4-5, pp 300-308, July 1994.
FRANZEN L. G. , CHEN D. & KLINGER L.F. (1996) - Principles for a climate regulation mechanism during the late Phanerozoic Era, based on carbon fixation in peat-forming wetlands. Published by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Ambio Vol. 25 No 7, pp 435-442, Nov. 96.
MALMER N. & RODHE H. - Comments on an article by FRANZEN et al. 1996. " Principles for a climate regulation mechanism during the late Phanerozoic Era, based on carbon fixation in peat-forming wetlands ". Published by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Ambio Vol. 26 No 3, pp 187-188, May. 1997.
FRANZEN L. G. (1997) - Reply to RODHE'S and MALMER'S (RM). Comments of FRANZEN et al. . " Principles for a climate regulation mechanism during the late Phanerozoic Era, based on carbon fixation in peat-forming wetlands ". Published by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Ambio Vol. 26 No 3, pp 188-189, May. 1997.
9 - W.G. Shelf Carbon (joint with IGCP 396)
W.G. CARBONMAP (1997) - A post-glacial carbon source: the submerged shelf. Fifth International Carbon Dioxide Conference, CAIRNS, Australia. Abstract volume, p.217.
KERSHAW P., KAARS S. V.D. , FAURE H. , XIANGJUN S., XUN L., WANG X., PENNY D., GRINDROD J. & THAMOTHERAMPILLAI A. (1997) - First evaluation of South East Asia continental contribution to the glacial /interglacial global carbon storage changes. Abstract. CLIP meeting, Sept. Cairns (Australia).
FAURE H., ADAMS J.M., DEBENAY J.P., FAURE-DENARD L.,GRANT D.R., PIRAZZOLI P.A., THOMASSIN B., VELICHKO A.A. & ZAZO C. (1996) - Carbon storage and continental land surface change during the last Glacial maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews. vol.15, pp 843-849.
(a list from the SE Asian WG has been lost in the mail, will be given in the next report)
GIRESSE P., ALOISI J.C., KUETE M., MONTEILLET J. & NGUEUTCHOUA G - 1995 - Quaternary sedimentary deposits on the Cameroon shelf; characterization of facies and of late Quaternary shorelines. Quaternary International, 29/30, p. 75-87.
10 - W.G. Coral Reef Carbon (cf SCORE 104)
KINZIE, R. A. III and BUDDEMEIER R. W. (1996) - Reefs happen. Global Change Biology Vol 2: pp 479-494. (this is not focused specifically on carbon, but it does address that issue in a larger context, and was designed to provide background on reef-related issues for non-specialists).
(the following are not "formal publications" but can be obtained on request and are citable)
SMITH S. V. (1995) - Reflections on the measurement and significance of carbon metabolism in coral reefs. Kansas Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-56a, 12 pp. (informal communications of Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research Working Group-104).
BUDDEMEIER R. W. (1995) - Coral reef carbon cycle research; conceptual and experimental design. Kansas Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-56b, 12 pp. (informal communications of Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research Working Group-104)
The two in Science Vol. 271 are technical comments on another paper; the rest are full journal articles.
BUDDEMEIER R. W (1996) - Coral reefs and carbon dioxide. Science 271 (5253): pp 1298-1299.
FRANKIGNOULLE M., GATTUSO J.-P, BIONDO R., BOURGE I., COPIN-MONTEGUT G. & PICHON M.(1996) - Carbon fluxes in coral reefs. 2. Eulerian study of inorganic carbon dynamics and measurement of air-sea CO2 exchanges.Marine Ecology Progress Series 145 (1-3): pp 123-132.
GATTUSO J.-P, FRANKIGNOULLE M., SMITH S. V., WARE J. R. & WOLLAST R., (1996) - Coral reefs and carbon dioxide. Science 271(5253): p 1298.
GATTUSO J.-P, PICHON M., DELESALLE B., CANON C. & FRANKIGNOULLE M., (1996) - Carbon fluxes in coral reefs. 1. Lagrangian measurement of community metabolism and resulting air-sea CO2 disequilibrium. Marine Ecology Progress Series 145 (1-3): pp 109-121.
KLEYPAS J.(1997) - Modeled estimates of global reef habitat and carbonate production since the last glacial maximum. Paleoceanography 12 (4): pp 533-545.
11 - W.G G.E.M. = " Global Emilian Modelling Initiative " (this working group is not yet confirmed). The interest is in the possible link of ocean productivity with continental dust : " balast theory " or " iron fertilisation ".
12 - W.G. AFRICA
(See also the Volume of extended abstracts of the Nouackchott INQUA/ IGCP meeting 1996/1997)
BRISSEAU N.(1997) - Distribution et stocks de carbone organique dans les sols des régions tropicales et équatoriales : cas du Burkina Faso. Mémoire DEA, ULP Strasbourg, CGS, 32 p. + annexes.
DAMNATI B., PETIT-MAIRE N., FONTUGNE M. MECO J. & WILLIAMSON D. - 1996 - Quaternary paleoclimates in the Eastern Canary Islands. Quaternary International. 31: 34-46.
DAMNATI B. & TAIEB M. - 1996 - Evolution hydrologique à l'holocène (7400-0 ans B.P.) au lac Sonachi, Kenya. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris. Tome 322-Serie IIa-n°2:141-148.
DAMNATI B. & TAIEB M. - 1995 - Solar and ENSO signature in laminated deposits from lake magadi (Kenya) during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition. Journal of African Earth Sciences, vol. 21, n° 3:373-382.
FALL M. - 1996 - Les isotopes 18O, 2H et 13C dans la matière organique des végétaux actuels et fossiles du Sénégal: relation avec les facteurs climatiques actuels et contribution à la reconstitution paléohydrologique des tourbières Holocènes des Niayes. Thèse soutenue à l'Université Chiekh Anta Diop de Dakar. pp 1-163.
FAURE H. - 1997 - Colloque de Nouakchott. Geochronique No 62, pp 4-5.
FAURE H. & FAURE-DENARD L. (Editeurs), 1997 - Changements aux marges des déserts en Afrique depuis 135.000 ans: Implications pour l'Eau, le Carbone et l'Homme. Colloque de Nouakchott. Joint Meeting of IGCP 349, IGCP 404 and INQUA Commission on Carbon, Volume des résumés/Volume of Abstracts, Université de Nouakchott, LGQ-CNRS, Aix-en-Provence, 160 p.
FAURE H. & FAURE-DENARD L- 1997 - Mauritania environmental changes during the Quaternary and their possible effects on carbon storage. In: Desert Margin Changes in Africa since 135,000 years: Implications for Water, Carbon and Man. Colloque de Nouakchott, IGCP 404, 349 and INQUA Commission on Carbon joint Meeting. Volume of Abstracts, LGQ-CNRS, Aix-en-Provence.
FAURE H., FAURE-DENARD L., Ould SABAR M. & VERNET R., 1997. Lacs quaternaires du Sahara: Enregistrement à haute résolution des modifications du bilan de l'eau et du carbone. In: Colloque de Nouakchott. Changements aux marges des déserts en Afrique depuis 135.000 ans: Implications pour l'Eau, le Carbone et l'Homme. PICG 349, PICG 404 et Commission Carbone INQUA. Volume des Résumes/Volume of Abstracts. LGQ-CNRS, Aix-en-Provence.
FAURE H.,FAURE-DENARD L., VERNET R., OULD MAHFOUDH A., LO Kh., OULD SABAR M.S.-1996 - Livret-Guide de l'Excursion en Adrar / Adrar of Mauritania workshop Guide-Book (29 dec. 1996 - 5 janv.1997) . Colloque de Nouakchott " Changements aux marges des déserts en Afrique depuis 135.000 ans: Implications pour l'Eau, le Carbone et l'Homme." PICG 349, PICG 404, Commission Carbone de l'INQUA,Univ.de Nouakchott, 23 p. 8 Fig.
LIOUBIMTSEVA E., FAURE H., FAURE-DENARD L. PAGE N. & WICKENS G.E. - 1996 - Sudan biomass changes since 18.000, a test-area for tropical Africa. Palaeoecology of Africa . Vol. 24 pp. 53-66.
LOVETT J. C. - 1996 - Elevational and latitudinal changes in tree associations and diversity in the Eastern Arc mountains of Tanzania. Cambridge University Press. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 12:629-650.
LOVETT J. C. & FRIIS I. - 1996 - Patterns of endemism in the woody flora of north-east and east Africa. L.J.G. van der maesen et al. (eds), The biodiversity of Africa Plants, pp 582-601. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
NAMRI M - 1997 - Les facteurs environnementaux conditionnant les teneurs en carbone dans les sols du Congo. Mémoire DEA, ULP Strasbourg, UFR Géographie, 188 p.
OULD SABAR M. S.; LO Kh., FAURE H., DERBYSHIRE E. & MAHFOUDH, 1997. Livret-Guide de l'Excursion B (Parc National du Banc d'Arguin). Excursion B Guide-Book. Colloque de Nouakchott, Desert Margin Changes in Africa since 135,000 years: Implications for Water, Carbon and Man. 35 p. 12 Fig.
13 - W.G. EURASIA: Western and Central Eurasia
VELICHKO A.A., YAKIMENKO E.Y. & KREMENETSKY K.V. (1997) - Role of terrestrial biota in the global carbon cycle during the last 125,000 years. IGCP No 404 " Terrestrial carbon in the past 125 Ka ". Moscow. pp 1-35. Abstracts.
14 - W.G. SOUTH AMERICA
LEDRU, M.P., BRAGA, M.P., SOUBIES, F., FOURNIER, M., MARTIN, L., SUGUIO, K. & TURCQ, B. (1996) - The last 50.000 years in the neotropics (Southern Brazil): Evolution of vegetation and climate. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 123, pp:239-257.
SALGADO-LABOURIAU, M.L., CASSETI, W., FERRAZ-VINCENTINI, K.R., MARTIN, L., SOUBIES, F., SUGUIO, K. & TURCQ, B. (1997) - Late Quaternary vegetational and climatic changes in Cerrado and palm swamp from central Brazil. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 128, pp 215-226.
SERVANT, M., ABSY, M.L., CARNEIRO FILHO, A., CHAUVEL, A., CORDEIRO, R.C., DESJARDINS, T., SIFEDDINE, A. & TURCQ, B., (1996) - L'évolution à long terme de la forêt Amazonienne (biodiversité et changements globaux). In: H. Thery edt. Environnement et développement en Amazonie Brésilienne. pp 166-179.
SUGUIO, K., TURCQ, B. & CORDEIRO, R., (1996) - On the paleoclimates of the last 60 ky in the eastern amazon. Anais Academia Brasileira de Ciência. 68, pp.102-107.
TURCQ, B., PRESSINNOTI, M.M.N. & MARTIN, L. (1997) - Paleohydrology and paleoclimate of the past 33,000 years at the Tamanduá River, Central Brazil. Quaternary Research, 47 pp. 284-294.
TURCQ, B., SIFEDDINE, A., MARTIN, L., ABSY, M.L., SOUBIES, F., SUGUIO, K. & VOLKMER-RIBEIRO, C. (1998) - Amazonia rainforest fires: a lacustrine record of 7000 years. Ambio. In Press.
TURCQ,B., MARTIN, M., FLEXOR, J.M., SUGUIO, K., PIERRE, C. & TASAYCO-ORTEGA, L. - Origin of the Quaternary Coastal plain between Guaratiba and Cabo Frio, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. in E.D. BIDONE, B. KNOPPERS & L.D. LACERDA Edts, Environmental Geochemistry of Coastal Lagoons. Case Study: Lagoons of Rio de Janeiro Coast, Brazil. In Press.
SIMÕES FILHO, F.F.L., TURCQ, B., CARNEIRO FILHO, A. & SOUZA, A. G. (1997) -. Registros sedimentares de lagos e brejos dos campos de Roraima: Implicações paleoambientais ao longo do Holoceno. In R. J. Barbosa, E.J.G. Ferreira & E.G. Castellon Edts. Ocupação humana, ambiente e ecologia em Roraima. INPA, Manaus. pp. 227-238.
SIMÕES FILHO, F.F.L. & TURCQ, B.- Palaeoenvironmental studies in a wet area of the Central Amazon terra firme forest. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. In Press.
CORDEIRO, R.C., TURCQ, B., SUGUIO, K., RIBEIRO, C.V., SILVA, A.O., SIFEDDINE, A. & MARTIN, L.- Holocene environmental changes in Carajás Region (Para, Brazil) recorded by Lacustrine Deposits. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. In Press.
18 - W.G. AUSTRALASIA
Bird, M.I., Chivas, A.R. and Head, J. - 1996 - A latitudinal gradient in carbon turnover times in forest soils. Nature, 381: 143-146
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Bird, M.I. and Grocke, D. (in review) Determination of the abundance and carbon-isotope composition of elemental carbon in sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta.
Bird, M.I., Head, J., Chivas, A.R. and Pousai, P. (in review) A global survey of the carbon-isotope composition of soils under C3 vegetation. Global Biogeochemical cycles.
Bird, M.I. Summons, R.E., Gagan, M., Roksandic, Z., Dowling, L., Head, J., Fifield, L.K., Creswell, R.G. and Johnson, D. - 1995 - Terrestrial vegetation change inferred from n-alkane d13C analysis in the marine environment. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 59, 2853-2858
Bird, M.I., Lloyd, J. and Farquhar, G. - 1994 - Terrestrial carbon storage at the Last Glacial Maximum. Nature, 371, 566
Bird, M.I., Brunskill, G. and Chivas, A.R. - 1995 - The carbon-isotope composition of marine sediments from the Gulf of Papua. Geomarine Letters, 15, 153-159.
KERSHAW P., KAARS S. V.D. , FAURE H. , XIANGJUN S., XUN L., WANG X., PENNY D., GRINDROD J. & THAMOTHERAMPILLAI A. - 1997 - First evaluation of South East Asia continental contribution to the glacial /interglacial global carbon storage changes. Abstract. CLIP meeting, Sept. Cairns (Australia).
ADAMS J.M. & FAURE H. - 1996 - Changes in moisture balance between glacial and interglacial conditions: influence on carbon cycle processes. In: Branson J., Brown A.G. & Gregory K.J. (Eds), Global Continental Changes: the Context of Palaeohydrology, Geological Society Special Publication N° 115, pp. 27-42.
ADAMS J.M. & FAURE H. (Ed.s)- 1997 - Preliminary vegetation maps of the world since the Last Glacial Maximum: An aid to archaeological understanding. Journal of Archaeological Science, 24, pp 623-647.
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